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Understanding Trademark Disparagement in India: Legal Perspectives and Implications
By: Shivalika Midha, Advocate
In India’s vibrant marketplace, trademarks play a pivotal role in distinguishing the goods and services of one business from another. However, the use of trademarks can sometimes lead to disputes, particularly when they are perceived as disparaging or offensive. In this article, we explore the concept of trademark disparagement in India, examining its legal framework, notable cases, and the implications for businesses operating in the country.

Trademark Disparagement in Indian Law

Trademark disparagement in India is primarily governed by the Trademarks Act, 1999, which provides for the registration and protection of trademarks. Section 9(2)(b) of the Act prohibits the registration of trademarks that are “likely to deceive or cause confusion” or are “contrary to any law for the time being in force.” This includes marks that are considered disparaging or offensive.

Legal Precedents and Case Law

While Indian trademark law does not explicitly address disparagement, several landmark cases have shed light on the issue. One such case is the dispute over the trademark “Nandini” between the Karnataka Milk Federation (KMF) and Britannia Industries. KMF alleged that Britannia’s use of the mark “Nandini” for its dairy products was disparaging and deceptive, as it could confuse consumers and dilute the reputation of KMF’s “Nandini” brand. The case highlighted the importance of protecting established brands from potentially disparaging use by competitors.

Challenges and Considerations

Trademark disparagement poses unique challenges for businesses operating in India’s diverse and culturally rich market. In a country with multiple languages, customs, and traditions, what may be considered disparaging in one region or community may not be perceived as such in another. As a result, businesses must exercise caution and cultural sensitivity when developing and marketing their brands.

Mitigation Strategies

To mitigate the risk of trademark disparagement, companies should conduct thorough research and due diligence before adopting new trademarks or branding strategies. This includes assessing the potential cultural and linguistic connotations of proposed marks and ensuring they do not offend or demean any particular group or community. Additionally, engaging with stakeholders and seeking feedback from consumers can help identify any potential issues or concerns before they escalate into legal disputes.


Trademark disparagement remains a nuanced and evolving issue in India’s dynamic business landscape. As businesses strive to establish and protect their brands in an increasingly competitive market, it is essential to navigate the complexities of trademark law with diligence and cultural sensitivity. By adopting proactive measures and fostering a culture of inclusivity and respect, businesses can minimize the risks associated with trademark disparagement and promote a more harmonious and equitable marketplace for all.